Growth and fixed mindsets
In the book “Mindset: The New Psychology of Success,” author Carol Dweck explores the concept of two mindsets that people can adopt: growth mindset and fixed mindset. A growth mindset is the belief that our abilities and intelligence can be developed and improved through effort and learning, while a fixed mindset is the belief that our qualities and abilities are fixed and unchangeable. Dweck’s research suggests that having a growth mindset is essential for success.
Dweck emphasizes the power of our beliefs in shaping our behavior and outcomes. If we have a fixed mindset, we constantly seek validation and try to prove ourselves in order to maintain our self-worth. We are afraid of failure and view it as a personal flaw. On the other hand, those with a growth mindset embrace challenges and see failures as opportunities for growth and learning.
The growth mindset creates a passion for learning and the willingness to put in effort to improve. Dweck argues that it is important to teach this mindset to children and praise their effort and perseverance rather than their intelligence or talent. By doing so, we can help them develop resilience and a love for challenge and learning.
Dweck also emphasizes the importance of adopting a growth mindset in the face of setbacks. Exceptional people are able to convert setbacks into future successes because they possess perseverance and resilience. Failure does not define them, but rather serves as a problem to be faced, dealt with, and learned from.
Dweck suggests that by embracing a growth mindset, we can change our beliefs and improve our performance. Operating just outside of our comfort zone and embracing challenges can lead to significant improvement. The idea of “not yet” (“I am not able to do this, YET”) is powerful, as it recognizes that abilities can be developed over time with effort and practice.
Adopting a growth mindset is crucial for success and personal development. By believing in our ability to improve, embracing challenges, and learning from setbacks, we can cultivate a passion for learning, resilience, and a commitment to growth.
The night parade of the hundred demons
From the University of Oregon:
In the ancient city of Kyoto, there have long been stories of demons and monsters parading through the streets at night. These accounts can be traced back as far as the early 12th century, although the modern visual representation of this phenomenon is mainly attributed to a painting scroll known as the Hyakki yagyō emaki, which is housed in the temple of Daitokuji. This scroll, traditionally attributed to Tosa Mitsunobu, depicts a night procession of demons and monsters. While it is possible that the scroll was based on an earlier model, it has become the basis for most later depictions of the night parade.
During the Edo Period, many scrolls and woodblock printed materials featuring the imagery of the night parade were created. This period also marked the development of the modern concept of yōkai, mythical creatures associated with Japanese folklore. The hyakki yagyō illustrations were considered a special subset of yōkai. While the title of these works refers to demons, they also feature tsukumogami, everyday objects that have gained sentience and frolic with the demons. The costumes of these creatures are distinctly medieval, giving them a unique identity within the yōkai realm.
In the Meiji Period, renowned artist Kawanabe Kyōsai created notable adaptations of the night parade motif. One of his most intriguing creations was a woodblock-printed book titled “Kyōsai’s Illustrated Account of a Hundred Demons.” This book, designed as an accordion book, allowed readers to experience the continuous horizontal format of a scroll. The viewer is taken through a series of scenes, starting with an army of animated skeletons charging into battle and encountering an assortment of hyakki yagyō monsters. The scroll concludes with the rising of a red sun, which disperses the parade of demons, similar to the ending of the senjafuda “hell scroll.”
The concept of tsukumogami, everyday objects that become animated, often appears in the context of the hyakki yagyō. These tsukumogami depictions often have a medieval feel, as they feature objects familiar to viewers from that era. Noriko Reider has discussed the broader category of tsukumogami stories and illustrations in the medieval period. In the early modern period, tsukumogami stories and illustrations also became prevalent in yōkai-related works.
The night parade of demons and monsters in Kyoto has captivated the imagination of artists and the public for centuries. From ancient scrolls to modern woodblock prints and books, this fascinating phenomenon has been depicted in various forms, showcasing the creativity and ingenuity of Japanese artists throughout history. The hyakki yagyō motif continues to inspire and intrigue, offering a glimpse into the fantastical world of Japanese folklore.